Monkey pox: origin, mode of transmission, symptoms?

simian-pox: origin, mode of transmission, symptoms? /></p>
<p><em>While vaccination against monkeypox is still underway in the province, the virus continues to spread rapidly in Quebec with 90 cases confirmed since Tuesday according to the most recent report from the ministry of Health. Here is an analysis by Sameer Elsayed of Western University.</em></p>
<p>ANALYSIS – With around 1,000 cases reported in several countries, human infection with monkeypox virus is attracting interest and concern as an emerging infectious disease threat amid the Covid-19 pandemic. slowly easing.</p>
<p>As of June 6, 90 cases of monkeypox have been reported in Quebec.</p>
<h3 id=What is monkeypox virus?

Monkeypox is one of a group of viruses closely related to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes smallpox, cowpox, and camelpox. Monkeypox virus was first discovered in the summer of 1958. It manifested as a non-fatal, smallpox-like skin disease in captive monkeys at a research institute in Denmark.

The name “monkey pox” is inappropriate, as African land rodents (rats and squirrels) are the natural reservoir of the virus. On the other hand, monkeys and other primates are only accidental hosts.

When was monkeypox first reported in humans?

The first known case of human infection with monkeypox was reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970, in a nine-month-old boy with a mild illness resembling smallpox.

Since then, sporadic human cases have appeared in many countries in central and western Africa, with infections more common in children and young adults. In countries where monkeypox is endemic (i.e. where it is commonly present), recent increases in cases are thought to be linked to climate change, deforestation, wars, increased mobility of the population and the decrease in herd immunity due to vaccination against smallpox.

How is smallpox transmitted monkey?

Transmission occurs through close physical contact with animals or humans, their body fluids, contaminated droplets from respiratory secretions or infected skin lesions. It also occurs indirectly through contaminated materials (inanimate objects such as sheets, towels and hard surfaces that can be loaded with infectious virus particles).

Animal bites and meat consumption are frequent modes of transmission in endemic areas. Secondary infections between unvaccinated relatives occur in about 12.3% of household contacts and 3.3% with the rest of the population.

When was monkeypox first reported outside of africa? Africa?

The first cluster of human infections linked to monkeypox outside of Africa occurred in the United States in 2003. An outbreak affecting 87 children and young adults in several states was attributed to close contact with infected prairie dogs acquired as pets from an animal dealer. The original source of the infection turned out to be imported savannah cricetomas, which transmitted it to prairie dogs. No human fatalities occurred, although three children were seriously ill.

Prior to 2022, several travel-associated cases had been reported in the UK, Israel, Singapore and the United States in people who had visited Nigeria.

What do we know about the global monkey-pox-outbreak in non-endemic-countries?< /h3>

On May 7, 2022, public health authorities in the United Kingdom were informed of an imported case of human infection with monkeypox virus in a traveler returning from Nigeria. Since then, more than 550 confirmed cases of human infection have been reported in the UK and 29 other countries. The frequency of cases is significantly higher in men who have sex with men, although the virus is not known to be sexually transmitted.

What are the symptoms of monkey pox?

The clinical manifestations of human monkeypox infection resemble those of smallpox, but are generally much milder. Unlike monkeypox, smallpox is an eradicated disease; it has no animal reservoir and does not usually affect the lymph nodes.

The incubation period for monkeypox in humans ranges from 4 to 21 days and is followed by a 1 to 5 day phase of fevers, chills, sweats, fatigue and enlarged and painful glands in the neck and groin.

The next phase is characterized by a multi-stage rash that progresses from small patches of skin to papules (small bumps on the skin), then to vesicles (small bumps filled with clear fluid) and finally to pustules (small bumps filled with pus). These are found mostly on the face, palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The pustules disappear forming a scar or scab within 2 to 4 weeks.

Exposed individuals may also experience a sore throat, cough, or rash on the mucous membranes of the mouth.

How serious is monkeypox infection?

The disease is usually mild, although severe and fatal cases can occur. There are two common genetic variants of the monkeypox virus: the Central African variant and the West African variant. Mortality rates of 3.6% for the West African variant and 10.6% for the Central African variant have been reported in endemic regions.

However, no deaths were recorded in to date in cases reported outside of Africa. All confirmed cases in the 2022 outbreak in the 30 non-endemic countries were from the West African variant.

Does public health have any other recommendations regarding monkeypox?

People infected with monkeypox should wear surgical masks and skin lesions should be covered until healed. Items for personal use such as towels and sheets should not be shared. Frequently touched surfaces should be regularly disinfected, contaminated clothing should be washed, and contact with household members and others should be avoided until the illness has cleared.

Healthcare workers should use gloves, gowns and respiratory protection with N95 masks and face shields, and maintain excellent hand hygiene when caring for patients infected with monkeypox. Hospitalized patients with confirmed or suspected illness should remain in isolation with airborne, droplet and contact precautions until cleared.

Does the smallpox vaccine protect against monkey-pox?

The smallpox vaccine — given before or after exposure to monkeypox — can prevent or reduce the effects of human infection with the disease. However, rare but serious adverse effects have been observed with older generation smallpox vaccines. A next-generation, live, non-replicating vaccine is now available and is considered safe for all populations, including those with compromised immune systems.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends pre-exposure prophylaxis (vaccination before exposure to the virus) with the next-generation vaccine for laboratory personnel performing diagnostic tests for monkeypox, as well as for health-care personnel administering smallpox vaccine or caring for patients with monkeypox. (Its trade name is Jynneos in the United States, Imvamune in Canada and Imvanex in Europe.)

In Canada and other developed countries, people born before 1972 were probably vaccinated against smallpox. Although immunity following vaccination tends to wane with age, lifelong immunity appears to be the norm after smallpox vaccination in healthy people, and the effectiveness of cross-protection against smallpox monkeypox would be 85%.

Will monkeypox- she the next viral pandemic?

The emergence of infectious diseases such as monkeypox in non-endemic areas has caused much concern in light of our experience with Covid-19.

Prior to the current outbreak in Western countries, monkeypox was considered a neglected tropical disease. However, the trajectory of these cases, coupled with the transmission pattern in Africa, suggests that the virus will not become pandemic.

The basic reproduction number (R0), a measure of viral contagiousness, where R0 represents the number of secondary infections transmitted from a single case in an unimmunized population, is 0.6 to 1.0 for the Central African variant, and much lower for the West African variant.

In comparison, the R0 of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is around 10, and the R0 of measles varies from 11 to 18. The R0 of the West African variant of monkeypox virus may be too low to allow person-to-person transmission outside endemic areas.

Sameer Elsayed, Professor of Medicine, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Monkey pox: origin, mode of transmission, symptoms?

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